This enclosure for archaeological remains at Ephesus elegantly
reconciles historic conservation with accessibility for visitors.
The site of a succession of great ancient civilizations,
Ephesus, on the south-west coast of modern Turkey, embodied a
peculiarly fertile synthesis of architecture and culture. In 356BC
the Greeks built the Artemesium (a colossal Ionic temple dedicated
to Artemis the fertility goddess) which was one of the Seven
Wonders of the ancient world. During the 2nd century BC, Ephesus
was the fourth largest city in the eastern Roman Empire, famous
for its Artemesium, the Library of Celsus and its medical school.
Quoted from Catherine Slessor's Housing
Ephesus; Ancient Greek city of
Asia Minor, near the mouth of the Menderes River, in what is today
West Turkey, South of Smyrna (now Izmir). One of the greatest of
the Ionian cities, it became the leading seaport of the region.
Its wealth was proverbial. The Greek city was near an old center
of worship of a native nature goddess, who was equated with the
Greek Artemis, and c.550 B.C. a large temple was built. To this
Croesus, who captured the city, contributed.
When Lydians attacked their cities,
Ephesians defended themselves by tying a rope from The Temple of
Artemis. But it was not a good way to defend a city. Croesus of
Lydia captured it easily however he did not destroy. The city
reached the "Golden Age" and became a good model to the Antic
World in culture and art, as well. Building of the Artemission was
going on.Croesus had a great respect to Artemis and he donated 36
columns with sculptures in relief. Some parts of these sculptures
are in the British Museum today.
From Lydian control Ephesus passed to the Persian Empire. The
temple was burned down in the 4th cent. B.C., but rebuilding was
begun before Alexander the Great took Ephesus in 334. The city
continued to thrive during the wars of his successors, and after
it passed (133) to the Romans it kept its hegemony and was the
leading city of the province of Asia. The great temple of Artemis,
or Artemis, called by the Romans the temple of Diana, was
considered one of the Seven Wonders of the World. From c.100 B.C.
to c. A.D. 100 Ephesus was the world capital of the slave trade.
The city was sacked by the Goths in A.D. 262, and the temple was
destroyed. The seat of a church council in 431, Ephesus was
abandoned after the harbor silted up. Excavations (1869-74) of the
ruins of the temple brought to light many artifacts. Later
excavations uncovered important Roman and Byzantine remains.
Quoted from The Columbia Encyclopedia,
Sixth Edition. 2001.
In a Christian version of a widespread story, martyrs immured in a
cave near Ephesus during the persecutions by Decius (c.250). Long
afterward, in the 5th cent., they awoke (as from sleep) and were
taken before Theodosius II, Roman emperor of the east. Their story
reassured the emperor, who had been wavering in his faith. The
youths returned to their cave, to sleep again until Judgment. The
story, thought to be of Syrian origin, was popularized by Gregory
of Tours. Feast: July 27.
Quoted from The Columbia Encyclopedia,
Sixth Edition. 2001.
In the year of 10 BC, Androclos, the
son of King of Athens-Kodros, was searching a location for
establishing a site. Androclos belonged to Akhas, was running from
the Dor invasion in Greece. He was leading one of the migration
convoys. It was predicted by an Apollon oracle that a fish and a
boar would show the location of the new settlement. Days later,
parallel to the oracle’s prediction, while frying, a fish fell
down from the pan, irritating a hiding boar behind the bushes. The
feared boar escaped immediately. Androclos followed the boar and
established the city of Ephesus, where he had killed the boar.
When Androclos died in the wars with Carians, a mausoleum was
built to the memory of the first king of Ephesus. The mausoleum is
considered to be placed around "The Gate of Magnesia".
Ephesus was ruled by the Lydian king, Kreisos, in the mid 6BC. The
city reached the "Golden Age" and became a good model to the Antic
World in culture and art, as well. As the detailed excavations
have not completed yet, apart from the Artemis, the remains of
that age haven’t been revealed.
Ephesus was dominated by Persians. As Ephesians did
not join the "Ionian Rebellion" against Persians, the city was
saved from destruction. The rebellion resulted in the loss of
Persian. Alexander the Great won Persians and the Ionian cities
got their independence in the year of 334. Ephesus was in great
prosperity during the times of Alexander the Great Until the
arrival of Alexander the Great, Ephesus was consisted of two
governing systems, democratic and oligarchic. But the oligarchic
system was violated with the coming of a new ruler, and a
rebellion existed in Ephesus.
The Temple of Artemis was fired and
destroyed by the supporters of oligarchy in 356BC.But
it is believed that a madman known as Herostratus set fire to the
temple in order to make his name immortal on the same night in
Macedonia Alexander the Great was born. As the temple became
unusable, Alexander the Great proposed for repairing. But the
Ephesians delicately refused for the reason that "A God can not
built a temple for another God.".So Alexander who was very proud
of himself as a God, gave some special priviledges to the city. An
Ephesian architect, Dinocrates restored the Temple of Artemis.
death of Alexander the Great, Ephesus was ruled by
the general of him,
Lysimakhos, in 287 BC.
Lysimakhos decided to change the prior location of Ephesus to
further west, due to the destruction of the port by the alluviums,
and the inhabitants were forced to settle in the new place named "Arsinoeina",
the name of Lysimakhos’ wife. The city was surrounded by wide
stone walls in 10 meters height and 9 meters length. And, "Arsinoeina"
was changed into "Ephesus"
again, to be forgotten eternally.
controlled by the Romans in 190 BC. The city was
given to the Bergamian kings for a time. With the death of King
Attalos 3 in 133BC, the city was re-ruled by the Romans. Ephesus
reached to its height and was notorious for its wealth and luxury
between 1-4 AD., especially during the reign of Augustus. During
the period, the population of Ephesus increased to 225 000, and
the city became the capital of the new
Asia. By cleaning the
river Caystros from the alluviums, the great trade port of Ephesus,
a gateway to foreign countries, enriched the prosperity of the
city and continued to thrive with commerce and culture. The city
was constructed, adding new models to the former magnificence of
Ephesus. "Celsus Library" clearly exemplifies the perfecta of the
era, with the delicate details of the construction.
has played significant roles during the date, in the early
Christianity, as well. The prestige of Ephesus increased with the
arrival of Saint Paul, for spreading the Christianity to the
Ephesians worshipping to Artemis. St. Paul and the disciplines of
Christianity were strictly refused by Ephesians, elderly. With the
long tiring struggles of St. Paul, Christianity was accepted by
the most of the population around Ephesus. St. Paul had also sent
one of his most famous letters to the church in Ephesus.
St Jean and Virgin
Mary visited Ephesus and Virgin Mary settled down the Mount Bulbul,
located close to Ephesus, around the years of 42 AD.
Ephesus became a state of Seljukian in the year of 1090, for a
time was held by
Byzantine. In 1307
Seljukians controlled the city again. However, years later, the
River Caystros was silted up, leaving the site far inland.
Therefore, the city of
Ephesus has lost its
significance, due to the development of the ports of Izmir and
Kusadasi in sea-trade.
: quoted from goturkey.com